A) How often does a Meterological Report (METAR) come out?
B) How often does a Terminal Aerodrome Forecast (TAF) come out?
Longer answer, if the airport is not operated 24 hours the times can differ. For example here at Whitecourt Airport they are issued twice a day at 1400 & 1900 Zulu.
C) A TAF is considered accurate for how many miles away from the airport?
D) In a METAR what is considered a cieling?
E) In a TAF what is the difference between FM and BECMG?
FM032200 They are forecasting a permanent change beginning at 2200 zulu on the 3rd day of the month.
Becoming (BECMG) will also give a time but they are expecting that change to be gradual. For example,
BECMG 0315/0412 means they are forecasting a permanent change to happen between 1500 zulu on the 3rd day of the month and 1200 zulu on the 4th day of the month.
F) What do the following mean;
VCSH GR -GS PL +FC
|VCSH||Showers in the Vicinity|
|-GS||Light Snow Pellets|
|PL||Moderate Ice Pellets|
|+FC||Tornado or Waterspout (it's not often you see this one!)|